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TOPIC ONE 0/0
History is the study of the records of past human activities in relation to the present which enables to plan or predict the future.
What were those human activities?
These human activities included hunting, gathering later faming, trading and handcraft industries. These human activities enabled man to obtain his basic needs such as food, shelter and clothes
Therefore history gives information at two levers
- It explains how man struggled to master his environment. Example instead of depending on hunting and gathering man started to make tools like stone tools for digging
- It explains the changing relationship between man and man in the process of material production. Examples hunting and gathering, societies started living together. Pastoralist also started to live together.
ADVANTAGES/ IMPORTANCE OF STUDING HISTORY
- History helps to understand how man has developed over a time
Studying history helps to understand the changes that took place between man and his environment
- It help learners to develop critical skills
It is through history where learners ask questions like what some events happed, how did they happed, who were involved and when
- It enables learners to understand past cultures and civilizations
It help learners to develop critical skills Example through history, one can know the Egyptian culture of making pyramids
- It helps learners know more about their identity.
Through history, learners can know more about their family, clans, tribes and their nations at the large.
- Past experience help helps to plan for better future
Through history, learners can correct the mistake done in past
- It helps to know the origin of the current social, political and economic problems of a certain societies
Example the current political crisis (problems in Sudan have roots since the colonial period)
SOURCES OF HISTORICAL INFORMATION
Historical information can be obtained through following sources:
- Oral tradition
- Historical sites
- Oral tradition
Refers to passing of historical information through the word of mouth The information is transmitted orally from one generation to another by elders or person who witnessed the events It is normally used in areas where there is no writing culture
Types of oral tradition
- Cultural practices – they include art, music, riddles, jokes, song, proverbs, stories, legends and folktales
- Narration of past events- here the elders who witnessed the events narrates (explains what they saw or they heard from others person who is collecting these information
Advantages/importance/merits/strength of oral tradition
- They provide information which is not recorded in written documents
- They are useful to both illiterate and literate societies. to provide information through oral tradition does not necessarily require reading and writing ability
- It is easy and cheap method of collecting information. This is because some expenses such as documentation expenses are minimized
- It makes history a live subject –This is because it involves physical interactions between the narrator and the listener
Disadvantages /limitations/demerits/ weaknesses of oral tradition
- The information may not be accurate (not more correct – some facts may be forgotten, left out or distorted when narrating
- There is limited scope where the information is produced. – Oral tradition produces information of a specific area not a larger area.
- The information may be influenced by the culture of the society that produced it.= the narration provided sometimes involves issues of culture of that society.
- Sometimes the information is biased. – information given may refer to the important people in the society such as political leaders, forgetting common people.
Archaeology is the study of past material remains
Types of material remains
a). artifacts- these are movable objects found in the ground such as pieces of broken pots
b). features- these are movable objects such as buildings
c). ecofacts – these are the natural remains such as plant seeds
How these objects are being obtained
The objectives from the ground can be obtained through excavation (digging of the remains and interpreting the findings
The work of excavating the remains is done by experts or professionals known as archaeologists